3) Overweight and obesity
An individual whose body mass index (BMI) is 25 or higher is considered overweight, and an individual whose BMI is 30 or higher is considered obese. Both are more likely to suffer from chronic kidney diseases, high blood pressure, and kidney stones. The extra body weight affects calcium metabolism, increasing calcium levels in the urine, which can lead to kidney stone formation. Furthermore, individuals who are overweight and obese tend to consume more animal proteins, which further increases the risk of kidney stones.
Sedentary lifestyles are also a contributing factor to overweight and obesity. Physical inactivity has a direct impact on calcium metabolism, leading to an increase in calcium levels in the urine. In addition, obesity can lead to the development of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, both of which are linked to an increased risk of kidney stones. Finally, overweight and obese individuals are more likely to suffer from inflammation, which can further increase the risk of kidney stone formation.